# Mysql – way to improve performance of this simple SELECT query

awsinnodbMySQLmysql-5.7

I'm still relatively new to MySQL so please forgive any ignorance on my part. I've tried looking through other posts on here and StackExchange, but haven't had much luck in improving the performance of this simple SELECT query. Let me start with the table schema, the SELECT statement, and the EXPLAIN for it:

Table:

CREATE TABLE Observations (
InstrumentID bigint(20) NOT NULL,
Epoch bigint(20) NOT NULL,
EndingEpoch bigint(20) DEFAULT NULL,
PhenomenonName varchar(16) NOT NULL,
Value decimal(18,5) DEFAULT NULL,
IsEstimated bit(1) DEFAULT NULL,
timestamp timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
PRIMARY KEY (InstrumentID,PhenomenonName,Epoch,Value),
KEY FK_31 (PhenomenonName),
KEY idx_Epoch (Epoch),
CONSTRAINT FK_27 FOREIGN KEY (InstrumentID) REFERENCES Instruments (InstrumentID),
CONSTRAINT FK_31 FOREIGN KEY (PhenomenonName) REFERENCES Phenomena (PhenomenonName)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1


SELECT:

SELECT PhenomenonName, Value, Epoch
FROM Observations
WHERE InstrumentID=2
AND Epoch BETWEEN 1514782800 AND 1546318740
AND PhenomenonName IN ('demand')
ORDER BY Epoch


EXPLAIN:

{
"id": 1,
"select_type": "SIMPLE",
"table": "Observations",
"partitions": null,
"type": "range",
"possible_keys": "PRIMARY,FK_31,idx_Epoch",
"key": "PRIMARY",
"key_len": "34",
"ref": null,
"rows": 1042464,
"filtered": 100,
"Extra": "Using where"
}


Sorry the explain is in JSON, I know that's not typical but the network configuration needs to be updated for my company's VPN so I can't connect via Workbench right now.

So, this query is for 1 year of 1-minute data, which is ~525K rows out of a table of ~18M rows and it takes ~22 seconds. Originally the PRIMARY key had Epoch before PhenomenonName, which was forcing it to do an index_merge_intersect. But, fixing the order of the key (which as you can see leads to it just using the PRIMARY key now) only shaved off 1 second. I've also tried running ANALYZE on the table, and changing Epoch BETWEEN 1514782800 AND 1546318740 to Epoch >= 1514782800 AND Epoch <= 1546318740, both of which seemed to make no difference.

Granted the hardware right now is very small since we're still developing the server–only a db.t2.small, which is 1 vCPU and 2GB RAM. However, increasing it to a db.t2.large, 2 vCPU and 8GB RAM, brings it down to 13 seconds. And then increasing it again to a db.t2.2xlarge, 8 vCPU and 32GB RAM, doesn't seem to improve performance–it's still ~13 seconds. Also, the storage is 100 GiB SSD and the buffer pool size is 75% of total RAM as per AWS's default setting.

Is this just a hardware limitation? If so, that's fine, but I want to make sure I'm not missing any opportunities to optimize the table schema or select statement, especially since this is just a query for one instrument, and queries will regularly have to be made aggregating several of them together.

Thanks in advance, and please let me know if I can provide anymore information.

Edit: By the way, this is unrelated, but as you can see I have two foreign key restraints, but only one of them has created an actual key. Is there any reason for this? My understanding was that foreign key restraints automatically create a key.

Edit2: The query took ~23 seconds on the small instance, and since adding Value to the PRIMARY KEY as per @SQLRaptor's suggestion, it's down to ~21 seconds. Still about ~13 seconds on the db.t2.2xlarge.

The index is optimal; it has the desired columns in the desired order. But it is suspicious. Keep in mind that a PRIMARY KEY is, by definition, unique. It is usually not reasonable to have a "value" in the PK. And there is no difference if you leave it out.
One thing that will make a small improvement is to shrink the datatypes where practical. Almost no application need BIGINT, but you have 3. BIGINT is 8 bytes. INT is only 4 bytes and can hold a timestamp (a la epoch). Surely you don't have billions of 'Instruments'. PhenomenonName could be normalized or perhaps turned into a 1-byte ENUM.