Learn English – Conclusion VS Summary


In the scientific papers it is very common to see words like abstract, summary and conclusion. What is the difference between those words and how we can use them correctly?

Best Answer

Abstract is generally the short version of the whole paper, it includes the most important statements both from the problem, the work and the conclusion: what was done, why and what results were obtained.

Summary is again a short description of the problem and the work performed to obtain the results. It does not go into all the details of the article, but it should be somewhat more informative than the abstract, however, these terms are sometimes used interchangeably.

Conclusion is the narrative of the results obtained and some statements based on them. In other words, it's the summary of the results of performed work.

Though there is some etiquette in writing scientific articles, but the terms are not strictly defined, and you can use your own words for headers and subtitles (well, maybe except the abstract and the conclusion).