3 Definitions and abbreviations

23.1713GPPFunctional descriptionLocation Services (LCS)Release 1999Stage 2 (UMTS)TS

3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply:

CAMEL: CAMEL is a network functionality, which provides the mechanisms of Intelligent Network to a mobile user

Current Location: after a location attempt has successfully delivered a location estimate and its associated time stamp, the location estimate and time stamp is referred to as the "current location" at that point in time

Deferred location request: a location request where the location response (responses) is (are) not required immediately

Global Positioning System: the Global Positioning System (GPS) consists of three functional elements: Space Segment (satellites), User Segment (receivers), and Control Segment (maintenance etc.). The GPS receiver calculates its own position based on the received time differences for several satellites

Immediate location request: a location request where a single location response only is required immediately

Initial Location: in the context of an originating emergency call the location estimate and the associated time stamp at the commencement of the call set-up is referred to as "initial location"

Last Known Location: the current location estimate and its associated time stamp for Target UE stored in the LCS Server is referred to as the "last known location" and until replaced by a later location estimate and a new time stamp is referred to as the "last known location"

LCS (LoCation Services): LCS is a service concept in system (e.g. GSM or UMTS) standardization. LCS specifies all the necessary network elements and entities, their functionalities, interfaces, as well as communication messages, due to implement the positioning functionality in a cellular network. Note that LCS does not specify any location based (value added) services except locating of emergency calls

LCS Client: a software and/or hardware entity that interacts with a LCS Server for the purpose of obtaining location information for one or more Mobile Stations. LCS Clients subscribe to LCS in order to obtain location information. LCS Clients may or may not interact with human users. The LCS Client is responsible for formatting and presenting data and managing the user interface (dialogue). The LCS Client may reside in the Mobile Station (UE)

LCS Client Access barring list: an optional list of MSISDNs per LCS Client where the LCS Client is not allowed to locate any MSISDN therein

LCS Client Subscription Profile: a collection of subscription attributes of LCS related parameters that have been agreed for a contractual period of time between the LCS client and the service provider.

LCS Feature: the capability of a PLMN to support LCS Client/server interactions for locating Target UEs

LCS Server: a software and/or hardware entity offering LCS capabilities. The LCS Server accepts requests, services requests, and sends back responses to the received requests. The LCS server consists of LCS components, which are distributed to one or more PLMN and/or service provider

Local Service: a service, which can be exclusively provided in the current serving network by a Value added Service Provider

Local Information: information related to a given location, or general information, which is made available in a given location

Location (Based) Application: a location application is an application software processing location information or utilizing it in some way. The location information can be input by a user or detected by network or UE. Navigation is one location application example

Location Based Service (LBS): a service provided either by teleoperator or a 3rd party service provider that utilizes the available location information of the terminal. Location Application offers the User Interface for the service. LBS is either a pull or a push type of service (see Location Dependent Services and Location Independent Services). In ETSI/GSM documentation of SoLSA, LBS is called "Location Related Service". ETSI and/or 3GPP –wide terminology harmonization is expected here

Location Dependent Service: a service provided either by teleoperator or a 3rd party service provider that is available (pull type) or is activated (push type) when the user arrives to a certain area. It doesn’t require any subscription in advance, but the push type activation shall be confirmed by the user. The offered service itself can be any kind of service (e.g. a public Xerox machine or the discount list in a store)

Location Estimate: the geographic location of an UE and/or a valid Mobile Equipment (ME), expressed in latitude and longitude data. The Location Estimate shall be represented in a well-defined universal format. Translation from this universal format to another geographic location system may be supported, although the details are considered outside the scope of the primitive services

Location Independent Service: a service provided either by teleoperator or a 3rd party service provider that is available and therefore can be activated anywhere in the network coverage. It is activated by the user’s request or by other user’s activated service, and therefore it requires a subscription in advance (pull type). The offered service itself can be any kind of service (e.g. MMS, SWDL, or LBS!)

Mobile Assisted positioning: any mobile centric positioning method (e.g. E-OTD, GPS) in which the UE provides position measurements to the network for computation of a location estimate by the network. The network may provide assistance data to the UE to enable position measurements and/or improve measurement performance

Mobile Based positioning: any mobile centric positioning method (e.g. E-OTD, GPS) in which the UE performs both position measurements and computation of a location estimate and where assistance data useful or essential to one or both of these functions is provided to the UE by the network. Position methods where an UE performs measurements and location computation without network assistance data are not considered within this category

Mobile Station: the mobile station (UE) consists of Mobile or User Equipment (ME or UE) with a valid SIM or USIM attached

PLMN Access barring list: an optional list of MSISDN per PLMN where any LCS Client is not allowed to locate any MSISDN therein except for certain exceptional cases

Positioning (/location detecting): positioning is a functionality, which detects a geographical location (of e.g. a mobile terminal)

Positioning method (/locating method): a principle and/or algorithm which the estimation of geographical location is based on, e.g. AOA, TOA, TDOA. For example, GPS is based on TOA, and E-OTD (on GSM) is based on TDOA

Positioning technology (/locating technology): a technology or system concept including the specifications of RF interfaces, data types, etc. to process the estimation of a geographical location, e.g. GPS, E-OTD (GSM), and IPDL-TDOA (WCDMA)

Predefined area: a geographical area which is not related to cell or radio coverage. The mobile may take special action when it recognises it has entered or left a predefined area

Privacy Class: list of LCS Clients defined within a privacy exception class to which permission may be granted to locate the target UE. The permission shall be granted either on activation by the target UE or permanently for a contractual period of time agreed between the target UE and the service provider

Privacy Exception List: a list consisting of various types of privacy classes (i.e. operator related, personal etc.). Certain types of classes may require agreement between the service provider and the target UE

Prohibited area: an area where the mobile must not activate its transmitter. The Prohibited area may be a Predefined area described above or related to radio cell(s)

Subscription Profile: the profile detailing the subscription to various types of privacy classes

Target UE: the UE being positioned

Further UMTS related definitions are given in 3G TS 22.101.

3.2 Symbols

For the purposes of the present document, the following symbols apply:

Lc Interface between gateway MLC and gsmSCF (CAMEL interface)

Le Interface between External User and MLC (external interface)

Lh Interface between Gateway MLC and HLR (HLR interface)

Lg Interface between Gateway MLC and VMSC (gateway MLC interface)

Lg’ Interface between Gateway MLC and SGSN (gateway MLC interface)

Uu Air Interface to a stand-alone LMU (measurement interface)

3.3 Abbreviations

For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:

3G-MSC 3rd Generation MSC

3G-SGSN 3rd Generation SGSN

AC Admission Control

AI Application Interface (prefix to interface class method)

ANM Answer Message (ISUP)

ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Business

ATD Absolute Time Difference

BCCH Broadcast Control Channel

BER Bit Error Rate

BS Base Station

BSS Base Station Subsystem

CAMEL Customised Application For Mobile Network Enhanced Logic

CAP CAMEL Application Part

CM Connection Management

CN Core Network

CSE Camel Service Environment

DL Downlink


E-OTD Enhanced Observed Time Difference

FER Frame Error Rate

GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node

GMLC Gateway MLC

GPRS General Packet Radio System

GPS Global Positioning System

HE Home Environment

HLR Home Location Register

HPLMN Home Public Land Mobile Network

IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity

IUEI International Mobile Subscriber Station Identity

IP Internet Protocol

IPDL Idle Period Downlink

LA Location Application

LAF Location Application Function

LBS Location Based Services

LCAF Location Client Authorization Function

LCCF Location Client Control Function

LCCTF Location Client Co-ordinate Transformation Function

LCF Location Client Function

LCS LoCation Services

LCZTF Location Client Zone Transformation Function

LDR Location Deferred Request

LIR Location Immediate Request,

LMU Location Measurement Unit

LSAF Location Subscriber Authorization Function

LSBF Location System Billing Function

LSBcF Location System Broadcast Function

LSCF Location System Control Function

LSOF Location System Operation Function

LSPF Location Subscriber Privacy Function

MAP Mobile Application Part

ME Mobile Equipment

MExE Mobile Station (Application) Execution Environment

MLC Mobile Location Center

MM Mobility Management

MO-LR Mobile Originated Location Request

UE Mobile Station

MSC Mobile services Switching Centre

MSISDN Mobile Station Integrated Services Data Network

MT-LR Mobile Terminated Location Request

NI-LR Network Induced Location Request

OSA Open Service Architecture

OTDOA Observed Time Difference Of Arrival

PC Power Control

PCF Power Calculation Function

PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

PRCF Positioning Radio Co-ordination Function

PRRM Positioning Radio Resource Management

PSE Personal Service Environment

PSMF Positioning Signal Measurement Function

PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network

QoS Quality of Service

RA Routing Area

RACH Random Access Channel

RAN Radio Access Network

RANAP Radio Access Network Application Part

RIS Radio Interface Synchronization

RNC Radio Network Controller

RRM Radio Resource Management

RTD Real Time Difference

SAT SIM Application Tool-Kit

SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

SI Service Interface (prefix to interface class method)

SIM Subscriber Identity Module

SMS Short Message Service

SIR Signal Interference Ratio

SP Service Point

SRNC Serving RNC

SS7 Signalling System No 7

TA Timing Advance

TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

TOA Time Of Arrival

U-.…. UMTS-(LCS functional block)

UDT SCCP Unitdata message

UE User Equipment

UL Uplink

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

USIM User Service Identity Module

UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

VASP Value Added Service Provider

VHE Virtual Home Environment

WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

Further GSM related abbreviations are given in GSM 01.04. Further UMTS related abbreviations are given in UMTS TS 22.101.