23.1213GPPArchitectural requirements for Release 1999Release 1999TS
126.96.36.199 Area concepts
For the mobility functionality four different area concepts are used. Location Area and Routing Area in the CN as well as UTRAN Registration Area and Cell areas in the UTRAN.
188.8.131.52.1 Location areas
For CS services, the CN uses Location Areas (LA). Location Area is used e.g. at CN initiated paging related to CS services. A CS service related temporary identity, CS –TMSI, may be allocated to the UE. This temporary identity is then unique within a LA.
184.108.40.206.2 Routing areas
For PS services, the CN uses Routing Areas (RA). Routing Area is used e.g. at CN initiated paging related to PS services. A PS service related temporary identity, PS-TMSI, may be allocated to the UE. This temporary identity is then unique within a RA.
220.127.116.11.3 UTRAN internal areas
UTRAN internal areas are used when the terminal is in RRC-Connected mode (see chapter 3.3). The areas are used at e.g. UTRAN initiated paging. UTRAN internal area updating is a radio network procedure and the UTRAN internal area structure should not be visible outside UTRAN. In RRC connected mode, the UE position is known on cell level or on UTRAN Registration Area (URA) level. RNTI is used as a temporary UE identifier used within UTRAN and allocated at RRC connection establishment.
18.104.22.168.4 Relationship between the different areas
The following area relations exist:
– there may not be any relation between URA and LA respectively between URA and RA. The URA concept is defined in TS 25.331;
– one RA consists of a number of cells belonging to RNCs that are connected to the same CN node;
– one LA consists of a number of cells belonging to RNCs that are connected to the same CN node;
– one RA is handled by only one CN serving node, i.e. one UMSC or one 3G_SGSN;
– one LA is handled by only one CN serving node, i.e. one UMSC or one 3G_MSC/VLR.
The GSM defined relations between LA and RA applies i.e. the following relations between LA and RA are possible:
– RA and LA is equal;
– one RA is a subset of one, and only one, LA, meaning that a RA do not span more than one LA.
The mapping between one LA and RNCs is handled within the MSC/VLR owning this LA. The mapping between one RA and RNCs is handled within the SGSN owning this RA. The mapping between LA and cells respective between RA and cells is handled within RNC.
Figure 4.10: Relationship between different areas
22.214.171.124.5 Hierarchical tracking concept
A packet UE (in RRC connected mode) is tracked at the cell level by RNC during an active connection.
A packet UE (in RRC connected mode) is tracked at the URA level by RNC when no data are actively transfer, and the probability of data transfer is quite high.
A packet UE (in PS-Idle state) is tracked at the Routing Area level by SGSN when no data is actively 21ignalling21 and the probability of data transfer is quite low.The network operator should be able to optimise paging and updating load by 21ignalling21 the size of the different areas and the probability of data transfer (controlled by the RRC_connection_release timer). For example, one operator may decide that URA are small, and that RRC connection are released after a relatively short time of inactivity, so that most attached packet UE are tracked in the Routing Area level (optimum for packet UE mainly using client-server type of service).
Another operator may decide that URA are large, and that RRC connection are released only if RRC connection is lost, so that most attached packet UE are tracked at the URA level.
The procedure for the releasing of the RRC connection can be found in 23.060 under the Iu release procedure. The URA update procedures can be found in 25.331.