4 Architecture

03.793GPPStage 2Support of Optimal Routeing phase 1TS

4.1 Optimal routeing for basic mobile-to-mobile calls

It is a network operator option whether to implement optimal routeing for basic mobile-to-mobile calls.

The existing GSM architecture supports the primary technical requirement of optimal routeing for mobile-to-mobile calls (basic OR): that a GMSC can interrogate an HLR in a different PLMN to obtain routeing information for a mobile terminated call (see GSM 03.04 [5]). Three logically distinct PLMNs are involved in the handling of an optimally routed mobile-to-mobile call:

– the IPLMN, which is also the VPLMN of the calling mobile subscriber;

– the HPLMN of the called mobile subscriber (HPLMNB);

– the VPLMN of the called mobile subscriber (VPLMNB).

Any two or all three of these PLMNs may be identical; in figure 1 they are shown as distinct.

Figure 1 shows the communication between the IPLMN, HPLMNB and VPLMNB for an optimally routed mobile-to-mobile call.

Figure 1: Architecture for optimal routeing of basic mobile-to-mobile call

In figure 1 and throughout the present document, the term ISUP is used to denote the telephony signalling system used between exchanges. In a given network, any telephony signalling system may be used; the only additional requirement is that GMSCA must be able to signal to VMSCA the destination address which it has used to route the call.

If the VMSC of the calling mobile subscriber (VMSCA) is distinct from the GMSC, it constructs an ISUP Initial Address Message (IAM) using the MSISDN of the called subscriber and sends it to the GMSC. If the GMSC, which may be distinct from the VMSC of the calling mobile subscriber but is in the VPLMN of the calling mobile subscriber, is in a different PLMN from HLRB, it requests routeing information from HLRB using the MAP protocol. If HLRB determines that the call can be routed directly from the GMSC to VMSCB without contravening the charging requirements for optimal routeing given in subclause 9.1, it requests a roaming number from VLRB using the MAP protocol, and VLRB returns a roaming number in the Provide Roaming Number ack. HLRB returns the roaming number to the GMSC in the Send Routeing Info ack. The GMSC uses the roaming number to construct an ISUP IAM, which it sends to VMSCB. The call is then handled according to the existing GSM procedures, except that if the call is answered GMSCA inserts in the ISUP Answer message the destination address which it used to route the call, to allow VMSCA to generate the correct charging record.

NOTE: If the GMSC returns an ISUP Answer message before it has received an Answer message from the final destination (e.g. because of an interaction with a Specialised Resource Function) an incorrect destination address (or no destination address) can be sent to VMSCA, even though the call is eventually optimally routed.

4.2 Optimal routeing for conditional call forwarding

Some cases of call forwarding on mobile subscriber not reachable (CFNRc) are handled in the IPLMN, without the call being extended to the VPLMN of the forwarding subscriber. For these cases, referred to in the present document as early call forwarding, the forwarding is already optimally routed.

When a call has been extended from the GMSC to VMSCB, the current GSM procedures lead to any conditional call forwarding being routed from VMSCB to the forwarded-to destination; this is referred to in the present document as late call forwarding. Optimal routeing for late call forwarding (ORLCF) allows VMSCB to return control of the call to the GMSC, which can then route the call to the forwarded-to destination.

Figure 2 shows the architecture for ORLCF. Phase 1 of SOR does not include optimal routeing of forwarding to a mobile subscriber, so optimal routeing of the forwarding leg is not considered.

Figure 2: Architecture for optimal routeing of late call forwarding

After the call has been extended from the GMSC to VMSCB, if the VMSC/VLR determines that the call should be forwarded it requests the GMSC to resume call handling. The GMSC uses the forwarding information received in the request to resume call handling, or interrogates HLRB for forwarding information, depending on the indication received from the HLR with the roaming number. If the GMSC determines that the call can be routed directly to the forwarded-to destination without contravening the charging requirements for optimal routeing given in subclause 9.1 it acknowledges the request, clears the traffic connection to VMSCB and sends an ISUP IAM to the forwarded-to local exchange.