5.2 LP-based Coding

26.4453GPPCodec for Enhanced Voice Services (EVS)Detailed algorithmic descriptionRelease 15TS

In general terms, speech dominated content is encoded using Analysis-by-Synthesis Linear Prediction (LP) paradigm. At some low bitrates configurations, the LP-based coding is used also for generic audio. On the other hand, LP prediction is not used above 64 kb/s. The LP-based coding consists in encoding the LP excitation signal and the speech spectral envelope, represented by the LP filter coefficients. Depending on the particular characteristics of a speech frames, different flavours of the excitation coding are used to encode voiced or unvoiced speech frames, audio frames, inactive frames etc.

The internal sampling rate of the LP-based coding is rather independent of the input signal sampling rate. Instead, it depends on the encoded bitrate to optimize coding efficiency. In the EVS, there are two different internal sampling rates used – 12.8 kHz is used up to 13.2 kb/s inclusively, and 16 kHz sampling rate is used for higher bitrates. It means that up to 13.2 kb/s, the LP-based encoding covers first 6.4 kHz of the input signal while from 16.4 kb/s and up the LP-based encoding covers 8 kHz of the input. For NB signals, the sampling rate is always 12.8 kHz.

For other than NB signals, the upper bandwidth (not covered with the LP-based coding) is then encoded using bandwidth extension (BWE) technologies, ranging from blind BWE at the lowest bitrates, parametric BWEs optimized to different content at higher bitrates, up to full encoding of the upper bandwidth spectrum at the highest bitrate (64 kb/s).

The basic block for the LP excitation coding is a subframe. The size of the subframe in samples is independent of the internal sampling rate. It equals to 64 samples. It means that at 12.8 kHz internal sampling rate, EVS uses 4 subframes of 5 ms while at 16 kHz internal sampling rate, EVS uses 5 subframes of 4 ms.