7 Performance requirements

22.1253GPPTSUnmanned Aerial System (UAS) support in 3GPP

7.1 KPIs for services provided to the UAV applications

The 5G system shall be able to provide unmanned aerial vehicle with the service performance requirements reported in Table 7.1-1.

UAV originated QoS in the table refers to the QoS of Uplink data (e.g. from UAV to the network side). UAV terminated QoS is the QoS of downlink data (e.g. from the network side to UAV).

The data transmitted by the 5G system includes data collected by hardware devices installed on UAV such as cameras, e.g. pictures, videos and files. It is also possible to transmit some software calculation or statistical data, e.g. UAV management data. The service control data of transmitted by the 5G system may be based on application triggers, such as switch, rotation, promotion and demotion control of equipment on UAV. Various UAV applications may require different uplink and downlink QoS at the same time. The 5G system may simultaneously provide services to other users on the ground (e.g., the KPIs for rural and urban scenarios as defined in 7.1 of TS 22.261 [4]) in the same area without service degradation.

Table 7.1-1 KPIs for services provided to the UAV applications

Use case

Services

Data rate

End to end Latency

Altitude AGL

service area

(note 4)

1

8K video live broadcast

100Mbps

UAV

originated

200 ms

<100 m

Urban, scenic area

600Kbps

UAV

terminated

20 ms

<100 m

2

Laser mapping/

HD patrol

Note 7

120Mbps

UAV

originated

Note 1

200 ms

30-300 m

Urban, rural area, scenic area

300Kbps

UAV

terminated

20 ms

30-300 m

3

4*4K AI surveillance

120Mbps

UAV

originated

20 ms

<200 m

Urban, rural area

50Mbps

UAV terminated

20 ms

<200 m

4

Remote UAV controller through HD video

>=25Mbps

UAV

originated

(Note 3)

100 ms

<300 m

Urban, rural area

300Kbps

UAV

terminated

20 ms

<300 m

5

Real-Time Video

0.06 Mbps w/o video

UAV

originated

100 ms

Urban, rural, countryside

6

Video streaming

4 Mbps for 720p video

9 Mbps for 1080p video

UAV

originated

100 ms

Urban, rural, countryside

7

Periodic still photos

1Mbps

UAV

originated

1S

0.1m

<120m

Urban, rural area

1s

<120 m

Urban, rural, countryside

NOTE 1: The flight average speed is 60km/h. The KPI is referring to [5].

NOTE 2: The latency is the time of the 5G system provide higher accuracy location information of a UAV to a third party.

NOTE 3: Referring to clause 5.2.2, the absolute flying speed of UAV in this service can be up to 160km/h.

NOTE 4: The density of active UAV is 10/200km2. The maximum altitude is 300m. The flight average speed is 60km/h.

7.2 KPIs for UAV command and control

UAVs may use a variety of flight command and control modes. Command and control (C2) communications refers to the two-way communication, which may include video, required to control the operation of the UAV itself. C2 messages may be communicated with the UAV controller, the UTM or both and may or may not be periodic. UAV controller and UTM communications may happen at essentially the same time with different required QoS. Any mission specific communication (e.g. HD video for area surveillance), if required, is additional. Different modes of control and their typical KPIs are listed in this clause below. The 5G system shall support UAV operation at altitudes of at least 120m / 400ft above ground level, e.g. the services should be provided and characterized up to 3000ft AGL.

Table 7.2-1 KPIs for command and control of UAV operation

Control Mode

Function

Typical Message Interval

Max UAV ground speed

Typical message Size

(note 1)

End to end Latency

Reliability

(note 2)

Positive ACK

(note 8)

Steer to waypoints (note 3)

UAV terminated C2 message

>=1 s

300 km/h

100 byte

1 s

99.9%

Required

UAV originated C2 message

(note 4)

1 s

84-140 byte

1 s

99.9%

Not Required

Direct stick steering

(note 5)

UAV terminated C2 message

40 ms

(note 6)

60km/h

24 byte

40 ms

99.9%

Required

UAV originated C2 message

(note 7)

40 ms

84-140 byte

40 ms

99.9%

Not Required

Automatic flight on UTM

(note 10)

UAV terminated C2 message

1 s

300 km/h

<10K byte

5 s (note 9)

99.9%

Required

UAV originated C2 message

1 s

(note 9)

1500 byte

5 s

(note 9)

99.9%

Required

Approaching Autonomous Navigation Infrastructure

UAV terminated C2 message

500 ms

50 km/h

4k byte

10 ms

99%

Required

UAV originated C2 message

500 ms

4k byte

140 ms

99.99%

Required

NOTE 1: Message size is at the application layer and excludes any headers and security related load. The numbers shown are typical as message size depends on the commands sent and is implementation specific.

NOTE 2: Message reliability is defined as the probability of successful transmission within the required latency at the application layer while under network coverage.

NOTE 3: Video is neither required nor expected to be used for steering in this mode.

NOTE 4: It may be possible to transmit this message on an event driven basis e.g. approaching a geo fence. A status message may but is not required to be sent as a response to a control message.

NOTE 5: A video feedback is required for this mode. The KPIs for video are defined in table 7.2-2.

NOTE 6: UAVs on board controllers typically update at either 50Hz (20ms) or 25Hz (40ms).

NOTE 7: A status message may but is not required to be sent as a response to a control message A 1Hz slow mode also exists.

NOTE 8: Positive ACK is sent to the originator of the message (i.e. UAV controller and / or the UTM). The 5G system makes no assumption whether an appropriate ACK is sent by the application layer.

NOTE 9: t the application level, the C2 communication between a UAV and UTM can be allowed to experience much longer traffic interruptions, e.g. timeouts of 30S on the uplink and 300S on the downlink.

NOTE 10: This only represents periodic message exchange during a nominal mission in steady state. It does not represent unusual or aperiodic events such as conveying dynamic restrictions or a flight plan to the UAV on the downlink.

Table 7.2-2 KPIs for video used to aid UAV control.

Scenario

(note 2)

Data rate

End to end Latency

Reliability

(note 1)

Direction

Positive ACK required

VLOS (visual line of sight)

2 Mpbs at 480 p, 30 fps

1 s

99.9%

Sent by UAV

Not Required

Non-VLOS

4 Mbps at 720 p, 30 fps

140 ms

99.99%

Sent by UAV

Not Required

NOTE 1: Message reliability is defined as the probability of successful transmission within the required latency.

NOTE 2: Maximum UAV speed is same as control mode of direct stick steering in 7.2-1

7.3 Positioning performance requirements

Table 7.3-1 below lists typical scenarios and the corresponding positioning requirements for horizontal and vertical accuracy, availability, heading, latency, and UE speed.

NOTE: The column on "Corresponding Positioning Service Level in TS 22.261" maps the scenarios listed in Table 7.3-1 to the service levels defined in TS 22.261 [4].

Table 7.3-1: Positioning performance requirements

Scenario

Accuracy

(95 % confidence level)

Availability

Heading

Latency for position estimation of UE

UE Speed

Corresponding Positioning Service Level in TS 22.261

Horizontal accuracy

Vertical accuracy

8K video live broadcast

[0.5 m]

[1 m]

99%

1s

[<120 km/h]

5

Laser mapping/

HD patrol

[0.5 m]

[1 m]

99%

1s

[<120 km/h]

5

4*4K AI surveillance

[0.1 m]

[<60

km/h]

Remote UAV controller through HD video

[0.5 m]

[1 m]

99%

1s

[<120 km/h]

5

Periodic still photos

[0.1 m]

[1 m]

[<60 km/h]

NOTE: The positioning accuracy in this table is not related to navigation or safety.

7.4 Other requirements

The 5G system shall support a mechanism to switch between C2 communication modes for UAS operation, e.g. from indirect C2 communication to direct C2 communication, and ensure the disconnect time is below the latency requirements.

The 3GPP system shall enable concurrent communications between the UAV-controller and UAV and between the UTM and the UAV that may require different KPIs.

The 3GPP system shall be capable of switching between the KPIs, as requested by the UAV-controller or the UTM, within [500ms].

Annex A (informative):
UAS Reference Model

A.1 UAS Reference Model in 3GPP ecosystem

Figure B.1-1: UAS model in 3GPP ecosystem.

In the UAS reference model:

– an UAS is composed by one UAV controller and one or more UAV(s)

– UAVs are connected over cellular connectivity

– a UAV may be controlled by a UAV controller connected via the 3GPP mobile network

– a UAV may be controlled by a UAV controller not connected via the 3GPP mobile network, using a C2 interface not in 3GPP scope

– a UAV controller connected via the 3GPP mobile network may control one or more UAV(s)

– the UAS exchanges application data traffic with a UTM

Annex B (informative):
Change history

Change history

Date

Meeting

TDoc

CR

Rev

Cat

Subject/Comment

New version

24/08/2018

SA1#83

S1-182766

Skeleton created

0.1.0

16/11/2018

SA1#84

S1-183278

TS22.125 v0.2.0 created to include agreements at this meeting

0.2.0

2018-12

SA#82

SP-181009

Presentation for one-step approval to SA

1.0.0

2018-12

SA#82

SP-181009

Raised to v.16.0.0 following SA#82’s one step approval

16.0.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0001

2

C

Removal of requirement on enforcement

16.1.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0005

1

F

Detect and report the problematic UAV controller to UTM

16.1.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0009

1

F

Clarification for identity of UAV controller data

16.1.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0008

1

B

Addition for Abbreviations

16.1.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0003

3

F

Clarification of Centralized UTM

16.1.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0004

3

F

Clarification of Decentralized UTM for Collision Avoidance

16.1.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0002

2

F

Clarification of UTM Definition

16.1.0

2019-03

SA#83

SP-190083

0006

3

B

Definition and Clarification for UTM

16.1.0

2019-06

SA#84

SP-190300

0010

3

F

Rewording the enforcement requirement in section 5.2

16.2.0

2019-09

SA#85

SP-190801

0021

2

F

Clarifications on UAS terminology and model

16.3.0

2019-09

SA#85

SP-190809

0017

2

B

Definition and introduction of C2 Communication

17.0.0

2019-09

SA#85

SP-190809

0018

2

B

CR to 22.125 Network exposure requirements for UAV

17.0.0

2019-09

SA#85

SP-190809

0013

2

B

Adding UxNB related requirements

17.0.0

2019-09

SA#85

SP-190809

0020

2

B

Service restriction requirements for UAV

17.0.0

2019-09

SA#85

SP-190801

0024

2

F

Corrections to Requirements

17.0.0

2019-12

SA#86

SP-191024

0026

2

B

KPIs for UAV services

17.1.0

2019-12

SA#86

SP-191024

0027

3

F

Clarification of Control Modes in C2 communication

17.1.0