I know that a domain name is resolved by a DNS server to an IP address, which is then used to reach the requested server. I'm slightly embarrassed that I don't know some of the details of how this works.
In order for my computer to ask the DNS service to resolve a domain, the DNS server must be known by my computer. I never explicitly told my computer about any DNS servers, so how does it know which DNS server it should use? Is it the ISP that pushes this information to my computer somehow?
For that matter, where are these DNS servers located? Does my ISP have some DNS servers running somewhere which are used by all it's (the ISP's) customers?
The DNS server my computer uses must know all domains in order to be able to resolve them, how are it's records updated/maintained?
Is there some central entity/registry/… that feeds a DNS server changes that have occurred?
If I order a domain name somewhere, the seller has to establish a connection between an IP address and the domain name it sold to me. How are all DNS servers updated to know about this link? So in other words, what actions does the seller take to inform 'the internet' where this domain now points to?
I know this seems like a bunch of questions but I think they're just different aspects of the same story. Can somebody tell me how this all works together?