# Would an executable need an OS kernel to run

kerneloperating systems

I know that when the source code, in say C++, is compiled, the output from the compiler is the machine code (executable) which I thought were instructions to the CPU directly. Recently I was reading up on kernels and I found out that programs cannot access the hardware directly but have to go through the kernel.

So when we compile some simple source code, say with just a printf() function, and the compilation produces the executable machine code, will each instruction in this machine code be directly executed from memory (once the code is loaded into memory by the OS) or will each command in the machine code still need to go through the OS (kernel) to be executed?

I have read a similar question. It did not explain if the machine code that is generated after compilation is an instruction to the CPU directly or if it will need to again go through the kernel to create the correct instruction for the CPU. I.e., what happens after the machine code is loaded into memory? Will it go through the kernel or directly talk to the processor?

As someone who has written programs that execute without an OS, I offer a definitive answer.

Would an executable need an OS kernel to run?

That depends on how that program was written and built.
You could write a program (assuming you have the knowledge) that does not require an OS at all.
Such a program is described as standalone.
Boot loaders and diagnostic programs are typical uses for standalone programs.

However the typical program written and built in some host OS environment would default to executing in that same host OS environment.
Very explicit decisions and actions are required to write and build a standalone program.

... the output from the compiler is the machine code (executable) which I thought were instructions to the CPU directly.

Correct.

Recently I was reading up on kernels and I found out that programs cannot access the hardware directly but have to go through the kernel.

That's a restriction imposed by a CPU mode that the OS uses to execute programs, and facilitated by certain build tools such as compilers and libraries.
It is not an intrinsic limitation on every program ever written.

So when we compile some simple source code, say with just a printf() function, and the compilation produces the executable machine code, will each instruction in this machine code be directly executed from memory (once the code is loaded into memory by the OS) or will each command in the machine code still need to go through the OS (kernel) to be executed?

Every instruction is executed by the CPU.
An instruction that is unsupported or illegal (e.g. process has insufficient privilege) will cause an immediate exception, and the CPU will instead execute a routine to handle this unusual condition.

A printf() function should not be used as an example of "simple source code".
The translation from an object-oriented high-level programming language to machine code may not be as trivial as you imply.
And then you choose one of the most complex functions from a runtime library that performs data conversions and I/O.

Note that your question stipulates an environment with an OS (and a runtime library).
Once the system is booted, and the OS is given control of the computer, restrictions are imposed on what a program can do (e.g. I/O must be performed by the OS).
If you expect to execute a standalone program (i.e. without an OS), then you must not boot the computer to run the OS.

... what happens after the machine code is loaded into memory?

That depends on the environment.

For a standalone program, it can be executed, i.e. control is handed over by jumping to the program's start address.

For a program loaded by the OS, the program has to be dynamically linked with shared libraries it is dependent on. The OS has to create an execution space for the process that will execute the program.

Will it go through the kernel or directly talk to the processor?

Machine code is executed by the CPU.
They do not "go through the kernel", but nor do they "talk to the processor".
The machine code (consisting of op code and operands) is an instruction to the CPU that is decoded and the operation is performed.

Perhaps the next topic you should investigate is CPU modes.